Glossary

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This page has been updated on 2010-10-26 for the release of Shareaza v2.5.3.0.

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This glossary page does contain many terms special to Shareaza or P2P in general. If you do miss a word that you think belongs here, just write a small note on the Talk Page or add it yourself in order to let others profit from your knowledge.

Glossary for Shareaza

This is a glossary of common terms used with Shareaza. It is arranged in alphabetical order.

  • Advanced edit
    A right-click menu choice called Properties for files you are downloading, it is available in Power Mode. You can use advanced edit to reverify a file that you suspect is corrupt, delete hashes associated with a file and add new ones, throw away parts of files and redownload them, or forget the sources for your download and find new ones. The reverification for files assumed to be complete allows the recovery of lost downloads, or gives you the opportunity to fix slightly corrupted files (for example glitched Kazaa downloads), ensuring an exact match with a file on G2. Advanced edit can also be used with BitTorrent downloads. Be sure you know what you're doing before using it.
See also AssumeCompleteReverify.
  • Bandwidth Monitor
    A little graph in the top of the Shareaza main screen, which shows your upload (yellow) and download bandwidth (green). Underneath the graph is a triangular slider: moving the slider to the left lowers the amount of bandwidth Shareaza uses, while moving it to the right raises the bandwidth used. If the slider is moved to absolute right-most position, limits you have set on upload and download bandwidth are not respected, and Shareaza will attempt to use all the bandwidth available on your internet connection. You can show or hide the bandwidth monitor by going into Power Mode and toggling its entry in the windows menu.
  • Basic Mode
    One of Shareazas three display modes. Distinguished from Power Mode by having a simplified user interface, with fewer options.
See also Basic Mode.
  • BitTorrent
    A protocol for distributing files which Shareaza (among other programs) can use. The BitTorrent-protocol involves a tracker which keeps a list of peers and a metainfo-file which allows clients to connect to a tracker and verify the files as they are downloaded. BitTorrent can be used to distribute single files, or multiple files at once (called batch torrents).
See BitTorrent for more information.
  • Corruption detection
    This detects if the file you are downloading is corrupted. Corruption detection is what is occurring in the common situation where the file being downloaded reaches 100%, but then goes back to 95% or so. It is preventing the 'SCREECH' sound in mp3 files like those common on the KaZaA network.
    NOTE: Corruption detection only prevents errors that occur in the transmission and writing of data and related errors; It cannot automatically fix a file being downloaded by a user if that shared file is originally corrupted because of miscoding, i.e. it can't prevent the sharing of crap! (So don't share crap.)
  • Crack
    A little bit of illegal software that allows you to use programs without the CD, or gets rid of the try-before-you-buy window like in WinZip. The Shareaza community does not recommend the use of such programs and posts about cracks are not tolerated on our forums and Wiki.
  • Distributed Hash Table (DHT)
    A Distributed Hash Table is a special type of organized P2P network, in which content can be found by its hash in a very efficient way. Usually, less than log(n) steps are needed to find a content hash in a network with n participants. Known DHTs are the BitTorrent (Mainline) DHT, Wikipedia Icon.PNG Kad (invented by eMule) and Mojito, first introduced by LimeWire.
See the Wikipedia Icon.PNG DHT article on Wikipedia.
  • Discovery services
    Internet services that store lists of eD2k servers, gnutella Ultrapeers, or G2 Hubs. Services storing gnutella UPs / G2 Hubs are called GWebCaches (commonly abbreviated (GWCs), and those storing eD2k server lists are often referred to as Server.met-files. Shareaza stores a list of discovery service URLs in its Discovery Services Window ([F9] opens the window). When you first try to connect to a network, Shareaza does not know the IP addresses of any Hubs or servers in that network. Therefore Shareaza has to query some discovery services to download lists of IP addresses of other network members to connect to. The results of these queries are stored in the Host Cache list. Discovery services sometimes get out of date, but you can add new entries to the list manually, by right-clicking and choosing to add a service, then pasting an URL to a new GWC or Server.met-file. Shareaza also has methods of adding new GWCs automatically.
See also GWebCaches.
See also Discovery Services Window.
  • eD2k link
    An eD2k link is a file link that has been specially developed for use on the eDonkey network. eD2k links are among the first P2P links that have been developed and start with the prefix ed2k://.
See P2P link#eD2k link for more information.
  • eD2k server
    An eD2k server is usually a dedicated somewhat specialized computer with a static IP that can sustain connections to several hundred or several thousand eD2k clients. ED2k servers interconnect to each other so that messages can travel throughout the eD2k network. Clients send file lists to eD2k servers so that other users can discover the files those clients are sharing. On the G2 network, G2 Hubs provide analogous functions.
  • eDonkey2000
    Also known as eDonkey or eD2k. eD2k is a semi-centralized file sharing protocol and network. Shareaza supports the eD2k protocol. It uses servers that anyone with a static IP can run. It is famous for day long queues, but has TONS of files and forces partial file uploading. eMule is as of today one of the most used eD2k clients.
See eDonkey2000 for more information.
  • Fakeaza
    Our nickname for fake versions of Shareaza, primarily the one distributed from shareaza*com.
  • FastTrack
    The network that the KaZaA program connects too. It uses a closed protocol and has many design flaws, so it will never be implemented into Shareaza. The FastTrack protocol uses an out of date hash system (uuhash) which can easily result in download corruption. Corrupt files, Fake files and viruses are therefore commonly found being shared on FastTrack.
  • Firewall
    A software or hardware utility that regulates internet traffic on your computer. A firewall must be configured to allow traffic on network ports.
  • G2 Hub
    Computers running Shareaza or other G2 programs can be elected to become Hubs. Hubs connect to a few other Hubs (hereby forming an overlay network structure - Hub to Hub connections are also known as peer to peer connections), and often several hundred leaves. Leaves upload lists of the names and SHA-1 hashes of the files they are sharing, along with some other data to the Hubs they are connected to. When a leaf sends a query through the Hub overlay network, Hubs try to match the query with the files of the leaves connected to them, and send the query on to other Hubs they are connected to. File matches are then returned to the original leaf that initiating the search. Search results are sent back via UDP.
  • gnutella
    A file sharing protocol and network that was developed by Nullsoft and then stopped when AOL bought Nullsoft. It is one of the first decentralized P2P networks.
See gnutella for more information.
  • gnutella Ultrapeer (UP)
    Currently (v2.5.1.0) not supported by Shareaza. This is the equivalent of a G2 Hub, but on the gnutella network.
See G2 Hub for an explanation.
  • GWebCaches
    Also abbreviated as GWCs. This is the name of the discovery services for the gnutella and G2 networks.
See also Discovery services.
See GWC for more information.
  • Hash
    A set of digits associated with a unique file. Hashes are calculated according to a common algorithm. The SHA-1 hash is a 32 digit SHA (secure hash algorithm) hash of a file which is used to identify it on the G2 network and can also be used to verify that a completed downloaded file has been correctly transmitted. Identical files will have identical hashes. The eDonkey2000 network also uses a unique 32 digit hash number to identify files, but it is calculated using a different method that on the G2 network. BitTorrent clients, before connecting to the tracker, calculate a 32 digit info-hash of the info dictionary of the .torrent file. The client will send this hash to the tracker, and the tracker will then know what file the client wishes to download.
See the Wikipedia Icon.PNG hash function article on Wikipedia.
  • Host Cache
    The Host Cache has four sections: eDonkey Cache, G2 Cluster, G2 Cache and G1 Cache. The G1 cache stores the IPs to known gnutella UPs, the G2 Cache to known G2 Hubs, and the eDonkey Cache to known eD2k servers. The G2 cluster doesn't store anything right now.
See Host Cache for more information.
  • IP
    Internet Protocol address. At any time, every computer system on the internet has a unique IP address, which acts as a unique identifier and allows direct communication to be established between two computers. Shareaza does not hide the IP address of users you are connected to. With the Windows NetStat command line utility it is possible to see the IP of everyone you are connected to. If you wish to see the IPs of other network members instead of their names inside the Shareaza Search, you just need to turn the Advanced Setting Search.ShowNames to False.
  • Keygen
    A tool that generates a serial number that is often required to be inputted when programs are installed. Normally this number would be supplied in documentation provided by the licensor of the program. It is mostly used to crack illegally traded games and other software, but can also be handy if you want to install your OS on a second computer, or have lost accompanying documentation. The Shareaza forums do not recommend the use of such programs, and any posts discussing them will probably be removed if the keygen in question is to be considered as illegal.
  • Leaf
    Leaf mode is one of the two modes a gnutella or G2 client can run in (the other is Ultrapeer resp. Hub mode). Most people run in leaf mode. Leaves connect to several Hubs, which allows the leaves to search the network and find sources for their downloads. Leaves spend their time uploading and downloading files to other leaves.
  • Normal Mode
See Basic Mode.
  • Peer to Peer (P2P)
    A general description for network protocols that establish a direct internet connection between two users, often to share files or to chat. Though originally intended for legal purposes, P2P file sharing programs are often used to share material in an illegal fashion. Many P2P file sharing networks are decentralized (such as G2 or Fast Track), meaning there is not one central server that acts to initially mediate the connection between peers. A BitTorrent file distribution, which normally uses a single tracker to enable peers to discover one another, is an example of the use of a centralized peer to peer network protocol.
  • Power Mode
    Distinguished from Basic Mode by having more options available to users. Power Mode can be selected from the view menu. While in Power Mode, a user can choose a windowed or tabbed interface from the view menu. The advanced section of the Shareaza Settings, and advanced edit options for downloads are only available to users in Power Mode.
  • Queue
    If you have a source for a file you want to download, it may happen that this source is too busy to upload the file to you right now. You will then get a place in that client's queue in the same way you line up in a queue to wait for a theater ticket. You'll then have to wait until it's your turn to get the file you want. You can see your position in the queues in the transfer window, if you expand the downloads by clicking on the little '+'. 'Q #32' means that you're at position 32, and 31 other users will get their file before you. G2 sources will also show the total size of the queue. However, most of the time - or at lest when waiting in long queues - more and more users that are in queue positions smaller than your will disappear, as they disconnect or stop downloading the file in question, so you're advancing faster than you if you were waiting in a linear queue. Also, if you're uploading more data to the networks, you will advance faster in queues when downloading than people who aren't uploading that much.
  • 'raza or raza
    The forum lingo for Shareaza; it's shortform. Similar to lol or cul8r.
  • server.met
    This is the common file name for files containing eDonkey servers.
See Discovery services for further information.
  • Skin
    Information contained in a .sks-file which alters the appearance or language of Shareaza. There are several default skins that come together with Shareaza. Skins for a Vista and Win7 appearance can be downloaded separately.
See FAQ.Appearance for further information.
  • SVN
    SVN is the name of the code repository the Shareaza project uses at SourceForge.net. In order to download the current SVN code at your computer, get Wikipedia Icon.PNG TortoiseSVN (or a similar client), install it, and select SVN Checkout from the context menu of the folder you wish to download the code to. Enter the following URL and hit OK to get the code: https://shareaza.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/shareaza. Note that if you wish to update the code at a later time to match the current code in the repository, you only need to select SVN update on the folder's context menu.
See also the SVN Wiki page on SourceForge.net.
  • TigerTree
    A hash and and file verification mechanism.
See TigerTree for further information.
  • .torrent file
    A small file with the extension .torrent. The file is usually downloaded from a website by clicking a link. If Shareaza is set as the default BitTorrent application, and you click on a BitTorrent link, a copy of the .torrent file will automatically be saved in the Torrents directory of Shareaza (which can be set in the Shareaza Settings). A .torrent file contains various sections (so-called dictionaries). These include the announce dictionary, which lists all Trackers of this torrent, and the info dictionary which contains information on the size and position, as well as the hash(es) of the files included in the torrent (of which the BTIH hash is mandatory). Shareaza - and other BitTorrent clients - can use these hashes to identify and verify the files included in the torrent.
  • Tracker
    A computer/server running software which keeps track of the internet addresses of people downloading a torrent. BitTorrent clients will use the tracker to get a list of other people down- and uploading the same torrent.
  • Ultrapeer
See gnutella Ultrapeer.
  • URI
    URI stands for Uniform Resource Identifier and is a way to reference to a resource, in many cases a file. An URI can - but doesn't have to - contain information about the location(s) of the resource, the way it can be retrieved, a way to identify it, optionally uniquely, or other types of information about the resource. The most widely spread example for URIs are URLs. The most important type of URI for the P2P community are Magnet links.
URIs are defined in RFC 2396.
See also FAQ.P2PLinks.

See also



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